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265 US 206, Hillsborough NJ 08844
1901 North Ave, Port Norris NJ 08349 (Sat by Apt. Only)
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Firewood Facts

Firewood Facts (based on data from Utah State University Forestry Extension)


SpeciesWeight (lbs./Cord)Heat per Cord (Million BTUs)% of Green AshEase of SplittingSmokeSparksCoalsFragranceOverall Quality
Ash, Green4184288020.0100EasyLowFewGoodSlightExcellent
Alder 254017.5 Easy ModerateGoodSlight 
Ash, White3952347224.2121MediumLowFewGoodSlightExcellent
Aspen, Quaking 216018.2 Easy FewGoodSlight 
Basswood (Linden)4404198413.869EasyMediumFewPoorGoodFair
Beech 376027.5 Difficult FewExcellentGood 
Buckeye, Horsechestnut4210198413.869MediumLowFewPoorSlightFair
Cedar, Red 206013.0 EasyLowManyPoorslightFair
Chestnut  18.0     GoodGood
Coffeetree, Kentucky3872311221.6108MediumLowFewGoodGoodGood
Dogwood 4230High Difficult FewFair  
Elm, American4456287220.0100DifficultMediumFewExcellentGoodFair
Elm, Siberian3800302020.9105DifficultMediumFewGoodFairFair
Fir, White3585210414.673EasyMediumFewPoorSlightFair
Hemlock 270019.3 Easy ManyPoorGood 
SpeciesWeight (lbs./Cord)Heat per Cord (Million BTUs)% of Green AshEase of SplittingSmokeSparksCoalsFragranceOverall Quality
Juniper, Rocky Mountain3535315021.8109MediumMediumManyPoorExcellentFair
Larch (Tamarack) 333021.8 Easy-med ManyfairSlightFair
Locust, Black4616401627.9140DifficultLowFewExcellentSlightExcellent
Maple, Other4685368025.5128EasyLowFewExcellentGoodExcellent
Maple, Silver3904275219.095MediumLowFewExcellentGoodFair
Oak, Bur4960376826.2131EasyLowFewExcellentGoodExcellent
Oak, Gamble  30.7       
Oak, Red4888352824.6123MediumLowFewExcellentGoodExcellent
Oak, White5573420029.1146MediumLowFewExcellentGoodExcellent
Pine, Ponderosa3600233616.281EasyMediumManyFairGoodFair
Pine, Lodgepole 261021.1 Easy ManyFairGoodFair
Pine, White 225015.9 Easy ModeratepoorGood 
Pinon 300027.1 Easy Many   
Poplar 2080Low Easy ManyFairBitter 
Redcedar, Eastern2950263218.291MediumMediumManyPoorExcellentFair
Spruce, Engleman 207015.078Easy FewPoorSlight 
Walnut, Black4584319222.2111EasyLowFewGoodGoodExcellent

Green weight is the weight of a cord of freshly cut wood before drying. Dry weight is the weight of a cord after air drying. Green firewood may contain 50% or more water by weight. Green wood produces less heat because heat must be used to boil off water before combustion can occur. Green wood also produces more smoke and creosote (material that deposits on inside walls of chimneys and may cause chimney fires) than dry wood. Firewood should therefore always be purchased dry or allowed to dry before burning. Dry wood may cost more than green wood because it produces more heat and is easier to handle.

A wood’s dry weight per volume, or density, is important because denser or heavier wood contains more heat per volume. Osage-orange is a very dense firewood with limited availability in Utah. It’s included here to show what a very dense wood is like. It contains almost twice the heat by volume of cottonwood, one of our lightest woods. In general it is best to buy or gather dense woods such as oak, hard maple, or ash. Hardwoods, or woods from broadleaved trees, tend to be denser than softwoods or woods from conifers. Some firewood dealers sell “mixed hardwood” firewood. This may or may not be desirable, depending on the proportion of low- density hardwoods such as cottonwood that are included.

The amount of heat per cord of dry wood is presented in the table above. Heat content is shown as a percent of dry green ash, a fairly common, dense firewood. Values above 100 signify a higher heat content than green ash and below 100 a lower heat content.

The information above also contains information on other characteristics that determine firewood quality. Ease of splitting is important because larger pieces of wood must usually be split for good drying and burning. Fragrance and tendency to smoke and spark are most important when wood is burned in a fireplace. Woods that spark or pop can throw embers out of an open fireplace and cause a fire danger. Conifers tend to do this more because of their high resin content. Woods that form coals are good to use in wood stoves because they allow a fire to be carried overnight effectively.

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